Like IP addresses, Autonomous System (AS) numbers are important Internet number resources. As the Internet has expanded over time, the original pool of available AS numbers has dwindled, and they are now running out. As a result, engineers have adjusted the AS number specification from two bytes to four bytes. This means that the pool of AS numbers has grown from around 65,000 to over 4 billion.
Domain Name System Security Extensions (DNSSEC) is an enhanced level of Internet security that allows authentication to be added to domain name records to ensure they are correct and not tampered with. This prevents hackers from falsifying DNS records in an attempt to re-direct people to fake, phishing or criminal sites.
Resource Certification, also referred to as Resource Public Key Infrastructure (RPKI), is a robust security framework for verifying the association between resource holders and their Internet resources. In this context, ‘resource holders’ are organizations such as Regional Internet Registries (RIRs), Local Internet Registries (LIRs), ISPs, or end-user organizations, while ‘Internet resources’ are IPv4 and IPv6 address blocks and Autonomous System Numbers (ASNs).